Space Concepts Of IPP
Here are some space concepts essential to IPP's two-fundamental-particle approach:
- A solid, particulate space (an ether): ethereal space is the only medium capable of hosting the formation & propagation of the infinite dynamic structures that IPP associates with both particles and energy.
- A bipolar, somewhat "squashed" cubic space lattice: a bipolar (ionic) cubic space lattice is essential to the concept of particle charge, and the "squashed" requirement (pre-existing amounts of rhombic distortion) is an obvious precondition for the formation of both particles & energy, when these are perceived (as IPP does) as infinitely-extending dynamic lattice distortion patterns. Thus, IPP views particle annihilations and creations as simply lossless interchanges of rhombic lattice distortion. Reflecting on this permits us to see that rhombic distortion = mass-energy, which, in turn, leads us to understand why mass-energy, being primordial universal rhombic distortion, is always conserved.
- Lattice defects: these are essential to the notion that the shape of a particle's infinite* distortion pattern (the essence of a particle's individual identity) is determined by the type(s) of defect(s) clustered at its center.
* I use the term, infinite, in this work to have the meaning, patterns that continuously expand toward the boundaries of the observable universe. This attribute of incessantly expanding boundaries is perhaps the crucial distinction between IPP's concepts of particles and energy and the current "infinitesimal point" perceptions of particle physicists.
Although all the other attributes of IPP's particle (or energy) apply only within its every-expanding boundary, its component of mass-energy extends to (IPP's) infinity. The reason for this infinite extension of its mass-energy is that, from IPP's perspective, both creation and decay must be perceived as processes that extend over infinite time! Thus, the rhombic distortion required by a particle's continuous expansion already exists in the decaying residues of an interconnected series of precursor phenomena. This thought has obvious relevance to the perennial debate about whether gravity propagates instantly, or at the speed of light.
- Defect-pairs (paired collapsed-void defects): defect-pairs are IPP's alternative to QCD's quarks, as the fundamental building blocks for hadron particles. They are quantized, scalable cardinal-aligning lattice distortion patterns, in which the defect-pair's two collapsed-void distortion patterns are bound together by mutual cancellation of most of their inherent expansion/contraction aspects. The defect-pair idea permits us to draw plausible 3-D defect clusters for all known hadron particles. Because all the component defect-pairs of a cluster have quantized defect spacings, and their individual mass-energies are proportional to the square of these spacings, it is possible to make an accurate calculation of any cluster's mass-energy, and compare this to the experimental value of the hadron particle that a particular cluster drawing represents.
- Lattice density oscillations (carrier of mass-energy): lattice-density oscillations (spheroidal ECE-packing-density oscillations) underlie all physical phenomena, and are fundamental to our understanding of defect hovering, defect movement, photons, spin, matter-waves, particle creation & decay, forces, momentum, gravity, and more.
- Polycrystalline space: the notion of polycrystalline space implies that the centers of particles and lattice-density oscillations will transit through space crystals of differing axial alignments. Hence, the central region of a particle's cardinally-aligned, constantly-expanding distortion pattern will be required to continually change its absolute spatial orientation. Being aware of these changes is essential to understanding spin-flips, polarizations, nuclear internal transitions & decays, indeterminacy, magnetism, superfluidity, superconductivity, and a host of other phenomena. We should also notice that grain boundaries distort the lattice, and thus require primordial rhombic distortion for their formation. This requirement yields an interesting possibility for explaining several current mysteries:
Dark matter: If we accept that the bound rhombic distortion of a grain boundary is mass-energy, we perceive that the whole of polycrystalline "empty" space will manifest gravitational effects.
Gamma-ray bursts & cosmic rays: If we assume that grain-boundaries can vary in their structural complexity, there is a possibility that an interaction between a transiting particle and a grain boundary might induce structural simplification, which could release mass-energy in the form of a high-energy photon plus a highly-accelerated particle.
The creation of hydrogen in "empty" space: Grain boundaries in "empty" space would manifest micro-gravitational fields that might attract and sequester slowly drifting void-pairs (electron neutrinos). This suggests that there is a remote possibility that three void-pairs might cluster together near a grain boundary, and bind to each other through charge-exchanges into a structure able to be converted by energy into a neutron (IPP's views a neutron as a charge-exchanging cluster of three mutually orthogonal neutral defect-pairs). The energy required for this conversion of void cluster to c-void cluster could be supplied by the chance coincidence of oppositely-directed high-energy photons, or, perhaps, even by utilizing energy released in the cluster's vicinity by geometric simplification of the grain boundary as explained above.
The created neutrons, of course, will subsequently suffer induced* decay into protons, electrons, and neutrinos, or their anti-matter equivalents, depending upon whether this decay occurs in a matter, or in an antimatter, ambience**.
* IPP is able to show that all particle and nuclear decays are induced, rather than occurring spontaneously, as is currently presumed. IPP suggests that decays are initiated by particle interactions with ubiquitous destabilizing agents, which consist primarily of ± half-charge lattice voids, neutral void-pairs, and polycrystalline grain boundaries. Decay half-life is a function of the probability that a defect cluster (a particle) will approach closely enough to a destabilizing agent (or vice versa) to exchange defect components with it, or be in the required geometrical relationship with a destabilizing agent long enough for it to catalyze the cluster's structural rearrangement, or breakup.
** IPP is able to make persuasive arguments that neutrons (and, in fact, all neutral particles) lack matter-antimatter valences. Accepting this conclusion, one speculates that there may be something different about the mix of destabilizing agents that abound in environments of matter, compared with those of antimatter. The finger of suspicion points most likely to vastly different ratios of plus/minus, or minus/plus, high-energy voids in the two environments. The discussion of this must be deferred until the reader has been given IPP's explanation of induced neutron decay.
- Derivative Concepts: Three decades of thinking about the above concepts has yielded many more ideas that serve to make IPP more comprehensive. These will be the reward to readers willing to stay the course of this complex presentation.
Introduction - Section 3: "Other Important Concepts Of IPP"
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