IPP introduces many new concepts to physics, which become the threads out of which a new fabric of physics is woven. In the weaving process, each these various conceptual threads is used repeatedly, so it becomes convenient for the author to capsule the meaning of each new concept in a single word, or phrase, in order to make the weaving process more succinct.
Although I have defined each of these new terms as I have introduced them in the text, you may not recall these definitions clearly when you come across them in later chapters. I repeat these definitions, here, (often rephrased) so that you may refresh any hazy recollections.
Note: Page numbers below each concept are places where it is discussed.
"Healing" the lattice of defects through rotational exchanges of ECEs between like-type defects of opposite-charge.
The inevitable production of an oppositely-directed kaon, whenever a
particle-creation experiment results in a sigma
resonance, or two kaons for a xi resonance, or three kaons for an omega
resonance. IPP is able to show that these kaon separations are essential in
producing the relative movement among the sub-component defect-pairs
of the precursor cluster necessary to form these hyperon
Black-body radiation of 2.7°K, coming to earth uniformly from all
directions, currently ascribed to big-bang photons being
cooled by 15 billion years of universal expansion. IPP says this is due to the
emission of energy when opposite-polarity "thermal"
voids join to form a void-pair.
A crystalline form of the space lattice in which each polarity of ECE is centered in a lattice cube of opposite-polarity ECEs.
IPP's concept of a black hole.
1-3, 4-17, 7-6, 8-2
Double-paraxial bond: mass-canceling arrangement of three
like-slant defect-pairs spaced apart along a common pairing axis.
Ring-diagonal bond: one-half the mass-deficit of the four
equally-spaced diagonal bonds that form in face-diagonal directions between
four like-spaced defect-pairs in a square arrangement.
A point in the dynamic process of defect translocations
when the translocating defect passes through the center of the "centered
distortion pattern" (a mental construct of no actual validity). For
example, in lepton particle (void, replacement, excess) hovering, the centered
phase is that moment when the defect (or the center of two half-defects, in the
case of the excess) passes through the center of a supercube.
The exchange of + void for - void
between opposite charge c-voids that lie in face-diagonal
directions from each other. This occurs during the translocations
of the two orthogonal defect-pairs of which these two c-voids
Inter-nucleon charge-exchanges: charge-exchanges between
diagonally-adjacent protons and neutrons,
which convert each to the other. They typically move protons toward the nuclide
perimeter, neutrons toward the nuclide center.
3-2, 10, 17
Offset-type charge-exchanges: ones in which the
participating defect-pairs lie in adjacent cardinal planes of the lattice.
Usually, these are simultaneous dual charge-exchanges in which both
defect-pairs move into each others' planes.
Mental picture of: movement of two oppositely-directed
adjacent face-diagonal "chains" of opposite-polarity ECEs
which reverse the charges of c-voids of two orthogonal defect-pairs.
A way of visualizing the fields induced in the space
lattice by the presence of a defect, or defect-cluster. One visualizes
spherical shells with either + ECEs or - ECEs embedded in
them, shrunken, or expanded, by an amount inversely proportional to the radius
squared, and directly proportional to the amount of central displacement
effects developed by the defect, or cluster.
Precursor void: the site which the
uncollapsed void occupied prior to its collapse.
Plane of collapse: the cardinal plane common to both the
precursor void and the translocating ECE; it is a plane of symmetry of the
c-void's distortion pattern. A tab lies in the plane of collapse.
Decay is an induced phenomenon in IPP. We avoid the discomfort of "spontaneous" decay by attributing decay to interactions with three newly perceived destabilizing agents in space, namely, lattice void-defects with ± 1/2e charge (muon-neutrinos), opposite-polarity void-pairs (electron- neutrinos), and, for hadron resonances, passage through the grain-boundaries between randomly-oriented crystals of polycrystalline space. Also, by providing specific defect structures for each resonance, and for its decay products, the Theory permits one to understand the relationships between particle structures and particle lifetimes.
Particle annihilations and particle creations can be visualized in considerable detail. However, much remains to be understood about the process by which the annihilating particles bring lattice shrinkage to the local scene. Also, how this shrinkage transmogrifies into these new defect types, and into the momentum necessary for their separation.
Two c-voids joined together along a common pairing
axis, by mutual cancellation of most of their expansion/contraction distortion. Defect-pairs have + e, 0, or - e charge;
the component c-voids can have a variety of spacings, from 5ü to 15ü; neutral defect-pairs will have even
spacings, charged defect-pairs odd spacings. Defect-pairs are matter/anti-matter neutral.
Mass of defect-pairs vs. defect-spacings: pages 2-12,13
A defect moves by a sequence of exchanges, each of which involves changing
places with an ECE spaced one lattice
face-diagonal away. These exchanges are affected by bound lattice
density oscillations, and can be in any of twelve lattice face-diagonal
directions from the original defect site.
Phenomena capable of inducing particle decay. These agents
are primarily ± voids & void-pairs (muon & electron-neutrinos),
which are assumed to be at least a billion times more abundant in space than protons or electrons. Other
important destabilizing agents are energetic photons, strong electrostatic fields due to proximity of (or collision with)
other particles, and the passage of hadron structures
Elemental charge entities; incompressible spherical particles
of identically-opposite properties, of approximately 0.18 fermi diameter, and
with charge effect equal to ± 1/2e, which form the solid space crystals of an
infinitely-extending polycrystalline lattice.
IPP permits us to view an electron, a -- replacement defect, as a
composite defect (a - excess filling a - void).
In the presence of sufficient undedicated shrinkage, these
two defects can assume independent identity, to permit charge-exchanges
between the electron's - void and a + c-void of the proton to
effect the above conversion.
The amount of available undedicated shrinkage often determines which pathway a creation or decay event takes. For example, to collapse opposite-charge muons (+ excess & - excess) into a neutral pion (a 6ü defect-pair) requires >31 MeV of undedicated shrinkage (136 - 2*105/2 = 31), whereas forming this same defect-pair out an electron-neutrino (opposite-polarity voids) would require >136 MeV. If both kinds of raw materials are present, and the amount of undedicated shrinkage is <136 MeV, we say that the first possibility is energetically favored.>
interchanging their locations in a nuclear structure by inter-nucleon charge-exchanges, rather than by breaking bonds,
and re-bonding in new locations. IPP uses this concept, along with the concept
of grain-boundary disruptions, to explain how a random mix of
x-p's and y-n's always produces an identical ground-state structure.
3-17; 4-1, 23, 31
The interaction between defect-pairs in a cluster affects
their defect-spacings, which usually increase with increasing
cluster complexity. Defect-spacings also increase in the presence of excess undedicated shrinkage. Thus, it often occurs that clusters form
with defect-spacing in excess of the equilibrium spacings of a particular
cluster geometry. This discrepancy usually leads to fracture of the cluster
into smaller clusters, which can then utilize the excess shrinkage
as separation momentum, since these smaller cluster will have
even smaller equilibrium defect-spacings.
A bipolar polycrystalline solid completely filling the cosmos.
Need for: pages 1-2
Properties of: page 1-3, 4
Creation scenario for: page 8-2, 3
- excess: A muon, or µ-
+ excess: An antimuon, or µ+
Radial variations in the time-averaged ECE densities and displacements surrounding any point in space.
Electrostatic field: inwardly and outwardly displaced concentric shells of + ECEs & - ECEs produced by a charged
Strong-force field: residual expansion/
contraction distortion surrounding paired c-void
defects. This distortion exists because paired c-voids are spaced apart, and,
thus, can't completely cancel each other's distortions. Hence, it will be true
that bonds between spaced defect-pairs also
leave residues of uncanceled distortion, so multiple bonds can exist between
clustered defect-pairs. This capability permits nucleons to bond into
Gravitational force: alteration in the ellipticity of a
defect's hovering oscillator through its interaction with radial asymmetry in
the integrated density of ECEs surrounding it. The
gravitational force is so weak because 1) ECEs are (presumed to be)
incompressible, and very hard to distort, and 2) the ellipsoidal ECE
distortions due to shrinkage result in circumferential
compression and radial contraction of the lattice surrounding
a defect. These contribute oppositely-directed hemispherical
shrinkage components to the hovering oscillator, which almost completely
cancel each other.
Electromagnetic force: alteration in the ellipticity of a
defect's hovering oscillator through its interaction with radial asymmetry in
the displacements of + ECEs & - ECEs surrounding it.
Transient half-formed electron/positron pairs which appear and disappear in
the central region of an energetic lattice-density oscillation,
as its central ECE density waxes and wanes. The numbers of
ghost-pairs is presumed to scale with oscillator energy, and,
thus, accounts for relativistic mass increases.
Transition zones in polycrystalline space between ether-lattice crystals of different cardinal orientations.
As agent of destabilization of multiplane nuclei: page 4-2
As agent for reversing slant directions: page 2-37
As a possible source of "dark matter": page 1-33
As a possible source of gamma-ray bursts: page 1-33
Experimental determination of grain size: page 9-7
Gravity is manifest as infinitesimal variations in the time-averaged ellipticity of ECEs in the space lattice. These
distortions in the spherical shape of ECEs are proportional to the
time-averaged shrinkage density at each point in the space
Mesons: in QCD, comprised of a quark-antiquark pair. In
IPP, defect-pair clusters extending in one or two cardinal directions.
2-17, 18, 24, 25, 26, 27
Baryons: in QCD, comprised of three quarks. In IPP,
defect-pair clusters extending in all three cardinal directions.
2-18, 19, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 34
IPP's explanation: pages 1-32
every defect "hovers" incessantly between adjacent lattice
locations, even those which are "motionless" in absolute space;
hovering is a byproduct of defect creation.
This has a special meaning in IPP: proximity of a proton and neutron can
interact upon their charge-exchange cycles to increase their mutual
attraction. When we examine these cycles, we see that every charge-exchange
state has both mass and charge asymmetry, even though the T-slant
form possesses tetrahedral symmetry. This asymmetry is simply due to the fact
that, in T-slant nucleons, defect-pairs comprised of + c-void defects cannot have a common center of mass with
orthogonal defect-pairs comprised of - c-void defects. Induced dipole effects
create the fields that make proton/neutron "entity"
exchanges possible. (see ENTITY EXCHANGES)
A convenient abbreviation of the more descriptive term, "point-centered
oscillatory torroidal rotations of ECEs creating shrinkage-producing
spheroidal lattice-density waves".
1-11, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21
An ever-expanding dynamic lattice distortion pattern, centered upon a hovering, drifting lattice defect, or defect cluster.
A term used to indicate that a particle structures exists
in both matter and anti-matter forms. IPP infers that only
charged particles have matter & anti-matter valences; it infers that
neutral particles lack these valences.
A detectable lattice-density oscillation whose frequency
is proportional to the amount of hemispherical shrinkage
captured by a defect's hovering oscillator. It is the lower
side-band of the frequency-modulation produced in the undetectable ultra-high frequency
of the defect's spherical hovering oscillator by the presence of bound
A term given to the tendency of a relativistic muon-neutrino to deflect a
proton during a close encounter. QCD interprets this as an exchange of a
Z-boson. IPP attributes this phenomenon to the ability of a half-charge void to acquire sufficient mass to deflect the proton by
collapsing momentarily in the ambience of undedicated shrinkage
released during a p-1 charge-exchange state of the proton.
A cosmological concept, i.e. a grouping of three pairs of opposite-polarity
"thermal" voids in an octrahedral arrangement of
great stability, which can convert to a neutron when its center coincides with
the center of collision of two oppositely-directed photons of
sufficient energy to produce undedicated
shrinkage in excess of 939.57 MeV.
Because all of the nucleons in a planar nuclide have their centers in a
common cardinal plane, and because there are three cardinal planes in the space
lattice, we infer that planar nuclei of the same isotope will tend to exist in
a multiplicity of orientations in space. IPP calls these possibilities,
orientation isomers. Nuclides with perfect symmetry will have 3 orientation
isomers; those with bilateral symmetry will have 6; asymmetrical ones, at least
12, perhaps, 24.
This is created by the fusion of hemispherical shrinkage
to a spherical LD oscillator. The speed at which an LD oscillator's center
moves through space is proportional to the amount of oscillator ellipticity.
1-5, 20; 7-14
The tendency of an oscillator, whose center is in motion through space, to
maintain a linear trajectory, despite transient deflecting interactions. Its
ability to recover hinges upon having so little of its mass-energy
in its central region (its mass-energy is distributed in equal radial
increments to infinity), and upon having all of its parts in intimate feedback
Lattice-density fluctuations at a photon's LD oscillator's
center involve torsional rotations of opposite-polarity ECEs.
These central rotations influence the directions of torsional rotations of the
entire oscillator structure, so these central rotations are perpetuated endlessly,
unless perturbed by external influences. The effect of this stabilized plane of
central rotation is to create an alternating electric field
whose strength is at a maximum at some angle in this plane of rotation, and
zero along its axis of rotation. This is the structure of a photon's
A cardinally-directed line that passes through the centers of two paired c-void defects.
An infinitely-extending dynamic distortion pattern in the space-lattice centered about a hovering defect, or defect-cluster.
An infinitely-expanding ellipsoidal lattice-density
oscillation, whose center of maximum ECE density jumps
through the space lattice at the speed of light. Photons are the only moving
phenomena which utilize 100% hemispherical shrinkage.
A charge-exchange will always alter the charge of each of
the participating defect-pairs by ± e. However in neutral
kaons, because of their symmetry, dual simultaneous charge-exchanges occur,
changing each defect-pair's charge ± 2e, thereby interchanging the plus and
minus axes of the particle.
A void which wanders into a zone of undedicated shrinkage, and subsequently collapses into a c-void, whose center is midway between the prior location of this void and a face-diagonally adjacent ECE, which IPP terms, "the translocating ECE".
The fraction of the total mixture of elements that exist in pristine
interstellar gases prior to their involvement in stellar formation. Can be
estimated from absorption spectra.
The phenomenon of current flow through a very thin reverse semiconductor
junction, currently explained as due to Heisenberg's Uncertainty
Principle. IPP says this is due to the field-canceling
effect of visiting + voids.
An increase in the wavelength of spectroscopic lines with distance to a
stellar object, commonly ascribed to the expansion of the universe. IPP
explains this as due to the loss of energy of photons
when they (very rarely) interact with and ionize void-pairs,
in their passage through interstellar space.
1-31; 8-8, 9
A lattice defect formed by removing an ECE from the lattice and replacing it with an opposite polarity ECE.
-- replacement: an electron
++ replacement: a positron
A condition in the structures of five-plane nuclides in which all the strongly bonding nucleon locations are occupied.
Proton saturation: occurs when the outrigger protons in all three planes (#1, #3 & #5) form complete rectangular arrays.
Neutron saturation: occurs when all the strongly bonding interplane neutron locations (planes #2 & #4) are occupied.
Islands of stability: nuclides in which saturation occurs
in both protons and neutrons have greatest abundance, or exhibit unusually long
half-lives. An example: 90Th232.
4-12, 13, 21, 24
The splitting of a defect-pair cluster into two or more
parts. IPP infers that increases in the bond spacings of
paraxially-bonded, or diagonally bonded, defect-pairs in cluster will often
lead to scission, because spacing increases may lead to smaller equilibrium
defect-spacings of the bonded defect-pairs, releasing undedicated
shrinkage which fuels separation momentum. Changes in nucleon
bond spacings (in nuclei), on the other hand, do not lead to scission, because
their defect-pairs are already at their equilibrium defect-spacings.
3-6; 6-16, 17, 18
Geometric shrinkage: that portion of a particle's
total mass-energy utilized in forming the ECE displacement pattern induced by
its central defect (or defect-cluster).
Hemispherical shrinkage: an infinitely-expanding hemisphere
of shrinkage which results from the progressive bisection of an infinitely
expanding spherical lattice-density oscillation. The center
of mass-energy of expanding hemispherical shrinkage moves through the lattice
at the speed of light. IPP uses the concept of hemispherical shrinkage to
explain photons, momentum, de
Broglie matter-waves, magnetism, and other dynamic aspects of phenomena.
1-6, 26; 7-4, 5, 19
Mass shrinkage: that portion of a particle's total
mass-energy utilized in creating the spherical component of a particle's hovering oscillator, and its spin.
Momentum shrinkage: that portion of a particle's total mass-energy utilized in forming the hemispherical shrinkage component of the hovering oscillator (i.e. that portion creating its ellipticity).
Undedicated shrinkage: a transient lattice-density
oscillation which results from the merging of two lattice-density oscillations
of opposite asymmetry, or from the mutual annihilation of two
particles. This oscillation represents mass-energy "up-for-grabs",
which instantly converts into particles and/or momenta or photons.
The fact that mass-energy is conserved convinces us that shrinkage is primordial! Shrinkage exists throughout the universe as a formless potentiality, fixed in quantity, but ever-changing in its utilization and distribution! At any given moment, it is apportioned among an infinity of various static and dynamic structures, but these are in a constant state of flux. Being primordial, every bundle of shrinkage already stretches to infinity. Thus, any new phenomena utilizing this bundle of shrinkage draws its sustenance from the decaying residues of an infinite series of prior phenomena.
Although it is convenient and natural to think of defects and lattice-density
oscillations as causing shrinkage, we see, rather, that these phenomena can
occur only if the point-centered shrinkage necessary for their formation is
already in their vicinity.
A cubic crystalline form of the space lattice in which the polarity of ECEs alternates in all three cardinal directions. IPP's concept
of "empty" space.
A term which has relevance only to "big bang" cosmology and to the
"black-holes" of General Relativity. Since IPP postulates that ECEs are incompressible, and already in contact, we see that the
notion of a singularity has no meaning in IPP. The greatest amount of
compression possible for the universe would be when all the ECEs are in the body-centered cubic lattice form. This conversion would shrink
the volume of the universe by only 23%.
A warp in the space lattice induced by the shrinkage
associated with the presence of a center of matter or energy. Point-centered shrinkage results in radial contraction
and circumferential compression, the former, increasing the spacing
between concentric shells of like-polarity ECEs,
the latter decreasing the spacing of ECEs within each shell.
1-16, Fig. 1-3
(Meaningful only in relation to two orthogonal defect-pairs). "Slant" is the face-diagonal direction assumed by the axis of expansion of a c-void, when viewed from the pair's center, with your two eyes parallel to the plane of the particle.
L-slant c-void: one whose axis of contraction slopes from
upper-left to lower-right.
R-slant c-void: one whose axis of contraction slopes from upper-right to lower-left.
A-slant kaons: a structure of two orthogonal defect-pairs in which the c-void slant directions alternate.
T-slant nucleons: a structure of three mutually orthogonal defect-pairs in which the c-void slants form a slant "tetrahedron" (i.e. where each of the three orthogonal defect-pairings has an A-slant structure). T-slant nucleons can occur in two orientations of the slant tetrahedron. One can convert to the other by 90° rotation about any of the three cardinal axes of the space lattice, a possibility which requires a rare grain-boundary transition between two space crystals whereby all three cardinal axes rotate 45 degrees.
M-slant nucleons: a structure of three mutually orthogonal
defect-pairs in which the c-void slants form a "mixed" pattern, i.e.
where only one of the three orthogonal defect-pairings has an A-slant
structure, while the other two have S-slant structures. IPP assumes that
M-slant three-axis structures are kaon resonances.
2-7, Fig. 2-5
The direction of a particle's major axis, or of a certain
state of its charge-exchange cycle, relative to the cardinal
axes of space. At every state in a charge-exchange cycle, there are multiple
possibilities for the direction of the next charge-exchange; also, any cycle of
a particular orientation will continue to retrace the same charge-exchange
pathways in the absence of external fields.
A detectable artifact in a defect's distortion pattern due to the continuous
rotation of its center between two adjacent lattice locations, under the
influence of its bound hovering oscillator.
A combination of a source capable of generating a beam of neutral atoms of
one specific isotope of an element, which is directed centrally through a
high-gradient magnetic field orthogonal to this beam. Atoms
in different spin states suffer different degrees of deflection, allowing their
A supercube is a pattern you can learn to see (a gestalt) in the simple cubic lattice, which we define as "any cubical grouping of eight contiguous lattice cubes"
Minus supercube: a supercube which has - ECEs at its eight vertices, and a + ECE at its center.
Plus supercube: a supercube which has + ECEs at its eight
vertices, and a - ECE at its center.
A catastrophic collapse, followed by colossal explosion-implosion of a
massive star. IPP shows how the explosion's high neutron flux creates
multiple-plane nuclei, with high n-to-p ratios, while the implosion forces the central ECEs into a body-centered
cubic-lattice form (IPP's concept of a "black-hole").
Diagonal-bonds between adjacent nucleons are said to be
"synchronized" when their six-state charge-exchange
cycles relate so as to produce the largest number of favorable diagonal-bond
alignments, and, hence, produce a "ground" state of the largest bond
3-6, 7, 8
(IPP's alter-ego of QCD's tau lepton) a structure which bears a resemblence
to the D±, but the tau has a charged "core" with neutral
"outriggers", whereas the D+ & D- have a neutral core &
charged outriggers. We may speculate that it is this charged "core"
which simulates the characteristics of a lepton, since the serial sequence of
four central charge-exchanges creates a spin analogous to
those of the electron and muon.
2-25, 26, 27
A transient spherical lattice density oscillation produced
by the mass-energy (undedicated shrinkage)
released by the annihilation of matter
and/or the cancellation of energy or momentum.
The center of this oscillation is nearly static, or moves slowly through the
lattice. Above a certain energy threshold, this oscillation rotates central ECEs to produce pairs (or clusters) of defects, and separation
momentum; below this threshold it splits into two photons.
Movement of a defect-pair through the lattice.
Diagonal translation: paired c-voids move 1ü obliquely together, alternating diagonal directions; center-of-mass takes a zigzag path.
Movement of a defect's center from one location to another, by opposite movement of an ECE.
Translocating ECEs: opposite movement of opposite-polarity
"chains" of ECEs. This action occurs in charge-exchanges,
in void-pairs (electron-neutrinos), and in replacement
defect (electron/positron) creations & annihilations,
in neutrino induced decays of nuclear protons and neutrons,
and in electron capture of nuclear protons.
See Hadron Tutorial
In unstable nuclei, typically one isotope of an element will have the
longest half-life, while half-lives are progressively shorter for mass numbers
below and above this isotope. However, in the region between Polonium, Z = 84,
and Protoactinium, Z = 91, all these elements have two half-life peaks. IPP is
able to give a structural explanation for this anomaly.
An IPP measurement in which 1ü is equivalent to one ECE diameter. Lattice face-diagonals are known to be 1.414ü. This nomenclature is used nearly exclusively for defect-pair and bond spacings. Although somewhat impractical, it may also be used for concentric shell separations.
In five-plane nuclei, neutrons that site in the all-neutron planes (#2 &
#4) are able to bond to planes #1, #3, & #5 only in dual
proton U-notches. Here they can form attractive diagonal bonds to 2 protons,
and a repulsive diagonal bond to the lone neutron of the U-notch, for a net of
one diagonal bond to each plane above and below them. Orthogonal U-notches are
not occupied, because they net a -1db bond.
A lattice defect created by a missing ECE.
+ void: a muon-neutrino
- void: a muon-anti-neutrino